Reid replaces Jimmy Sinclair, who retired earlier this summer.
A former football league defender, Reid has been working in a backroom role at Eastleigh, the club formerly owned by Sunderland chairman Stewart Donald.
"This opportunity is the accumulation of many years playing, studying and working within football and I am both excited and proud to be given the role of leading the Academy set up at such a fantastic club.
“A thriving academy is the bedrock of any successful football club. I am looking forward to working alongside the academy team, with the aim of building on the great foundations that are already in place and cementing our reputation as one of the best environments in the country for young footballers to develop and progress.”
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A club statement said that Reid would work alongside assistant academy manager Elliott Dickman, head of coaching Mark McCormick and academy operations manager Leann Cowperthwaite.