Sunderland were the second biggest spenders when it came to agent fees between February 2017 and 31 January 2018 - involving almost 30 deals.
Aston Villa are the only Championship side to have spent more than Sunderland in agent fees in that period, figures released by the FA have shown, with the Black Cats shelling out £4,370,897 to registered intermediaries during that time.
Sunderland have experienced another year of huge player turnover.
Included in the figures were a number of short-term deals, while Sunderland were involved in almost 30 deals in total when it came to ins and outs and new contracts, helping bump up the final figure.
There were also fees paid to agents in order to get some of the club's high earners - such as Fabio Borini - off the books.
Borini joined AC Milan on a season-long loan deal last summer, with the move officially turning permanent this summer after clauses were triggered.
Included in the transactions were contract renewals last summer for the likes of skipper John O'Shea and George Honeyman. Honeyman was represented by former Sunderland AFC chief Margaret Byrne, who now works as an agent.
Since the end of last season Sunderland have completed 15 incoming deals, a variety of loans, free transfers and low-cost permanent additions. There have also been a similar number of outgoing deals completed in that time, including a raft of loans.
Intermediary transactions involving Sunderland between February 2017 and 31 January 2018 (agent name in brackets)
07/03/17 Michael Ledger (James Welch)
11/04/17 Javier Manquillo (Margarita Garay Bret)
Summer transfer window:
24/05/17 George Honeyman (Margaret Byrne)
15/06/17 Benjamin Mbunga-Kimpioka (Martin Klette)
03/07/17 John O’Shea (Kevin Moran)
08/07/17 Denver Hume (Gary Porter)
08/07/17 Thomas Beadling (Gary Porter)
08/07/17 Fabio Borini (Roberto De Fanti)
09/07/17 Brendan Galloway (Jamie Moralee)
11/07/17 Tyias Browning (Simon Mark Rankine)
14/07/17 Aiden McGeady (Struan Marshall)
14/07/17 James Vaughan (Clive Platt)
24/07/17 Duncan Watmore (James Welch)
25/07/17 Lee John Connelly (John Paul Mowberry)
28/07/17 Jason Steele (Colin Murdock)
03/08/17 Robbin Ruiter (Darren Lee Robinson)
31/08/17 Callum McManaman (Paul Warhurst)
31/08/17 Jonathan Williams (Kane Winson)
31/08/17 Marc Wilson (Leon Callender)
31/08/17 Papy Djilobodji (Bouna Albourny Ndiaye)
January transfer window:
02/01/18 Andrew Nelson (James Welch)
08/01/18 Jake Clarke-Salter (Tom Soden)
26/01/18 Kazenga LuaLua (Brad Warner)
30/01/18 Thomas Beadling (Gary Porter)
31/01/18 Ashley Fletcher (Sky Andrew)
31/01/18 Connor Shields (Elliott Fillingham)
02/01/18 Thomas Robson (James Welch)
26/01/18 Rees Greenwood (Robert Filson)